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Showing posts with label Disasters. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Disasters. Show all posts

Geothermal Heat Energy Extraction from Boreholes

Shallow geothermal energy – high efficient heating and cooling of hotel complexes and commercial buildings with borehole heat exchanger systems as seasonal storage for heat and cold




The utilization of shallow geothermal energy with borehole heat exchangers and heat pumps for heating and cooling of buildings is very popular in Europe due to low costs of operation and high operating reliability. These systems have the highest rates of growth of all energy supply systems in Europe.

In order to provide a productive and comfortable climate for a living and working environment, buildings have an anti-cyclical demand of heat and cold. During the summer, when abundant heat is available, they have to be air-conditioned, while in wintertime, when cold is at disposal, the buildings have to be heated. Especially the heat and cold supply for hotels and commercial buildings is a challenge, as their huge energy demand needs to be satisfied with a reliable and cost-effective solution. This solution are borehole heat exchangers, which use the huge energy storage potential of the underground with up to 400 m deep boreholes and turn it into an anti-cyclic heat reservoir.



Excessive space heat from air-conditioning in summer will not simply be blown into the atmosphere. The heat is transferred into the underground via the borehole heat exchangers and will increase the existing heat potential of the earth. The same system is used to extract the heat in winter from the underground and make it available for the heating of the building with a heat pump.


Compared to conventional systems, the cost of operation of ground-coupled heat pumps is very low. A minimum of 75% of the heat will be provided by the underground. Depending on the design, the cooling mode requires only electricity for a circulation pump. A borehole heat exchanger system can be operated 50% cheaper than a conventional heating and cooling system, where the heating and the air-conditioning unit work independent from each other.



With professional and optimized planning the utilization of shallow geothermal energy is the most economical system for the combination of heating and air-conditioning, especially for larger buildings. The investigation and evaluation of a shallow geothermal energy supply with regards to the requirements of the building services and the local site conditions has to be conducted by a professional consultant. The technical knowledge of an expert is needed from the first planning phase to the completion for a successful implementation of an optimized system.


By human terms, nearly inexhaustible shallow geothermal potential as a renewable energy. They can be ideally combined with other systems, like CHP, solar collectors, and photo-voltaic systems. Borehole heat exchanger systems can provide the base load day and night, as they are independent of sun or wind and they are an ideal solution for buildings with a high energy demand, like hotels and commercial buildings. South Africa is a perfect location for this technology – commercial buildings, like shopping centers and office buildings can be supplied with a perfect heating and cooling system with essential savings for operation costs. Drilling equipment is available for a reasonable price and the underground conditions are perfect in many parts of the country.

Dr. Frank Frauenstein - Email Me                        

 




Climate Change and Global Warming


3. Are sea levels rising?





Increases in sea level have tracked strongly with human activity. We started burning fossil fuel during the Industrial Revolution (1760-1850), and our use of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased every year. Sea levels, in response to steadily warming temperatures, also rose steadily.





Unfortunately, the sea level projections don't look like a straight line. It looks like an upward sloping curve. Sea levels aren't increasing at the same rate every year — thatrate is increasing.
At present, sea levels are projected to rise by as much as 3 feet by 2100.





With the planet's ice reserves falling into the oceans faster than humanity has ever seen,the excess water has to go somewhere. 1.6 million people live in the islands scattered across the Pacific (3 million, if you count Hawaii), and they are all in danger of slowly losing their homelands.


But rising sea levels won't just affect faceless people of nations you've never heard of that you don't pronounce correctly (like Kiribati).
Ever heard that saying "A rising tide lifts all boats"? Let's revise that: "A rising tide sinks all coastal communities."
Nearly 40% of Americans live in a coastal county.


Rising sea levels could make significant portions of New York City unlivable.


4. Have recent heat waves been more intense?



How Real is Climate Change and Global Warming

 

Afghanistan Before The Wars

These photos were made in 1967 by professor of Arizona State University, Podlich, during a two-year trip in Afghanistan with UNESCO while teaching at the Higher Teachers College in Kabul. He visited Afghanistan with his wife, and two teenage daughters Peg and Jan. This family is happy to share  these photos and their impressions with the world to show how this country looked like before terrible wars.





Of her father, Dr. William Podlich (second from left), Peg Podlich said: "He had always said that since he had served in WWII...he wanted to serve in the cause of peace. In 1967, he was hired by UNESCO as an expert on principles of education for a two-year stint in Kabul.... Throughout his adult life, because he was interested in social studies, whenever he traveled around [in Arizona, to Mexico, and other places] he continued to take pictures. In Afghanistan he took half-frame color slides [on Kodachrome] and I believe he used a small Olympus camera."





"I grew up in Tempe, Arizona, and when my dad offered my younger sister, Jan, and me the chance to go with him and our mother to Afghanistan, I was excited about the opportunity," says Peg Podlich (right). "I would spend my senior year in high school in some exotic country, not in ordinary Tempe.... Of course, there were loads of cultural differences between Arizona and Afghanistan, but I had very interesting and entertaining experiences. People always seemed friendly and helpful. I never got into any real difficulties or scrapes, even though I was a fairly clueless teenager! Times were more gentle back then."

Peg Podlich (in sunglasses) during a family trip by bus from Kabul to Peshawar, Pakistan.



Jan Podlich is pictured during a shopping trip to Istalif, a village about 30 kilometers northwest of Kabul. "We arrived in Kabul one sunshiny morning in June.... My dad met us and was able to whisk us through the customs. We proceeded into Kabul in a UN 'kombi' (kind of an old-school SUV). I was tired, but I can remember being amazed at the sight of colorful (dark blue, green, and maroon) ghosts that were wafting along the side of the road. My dad explained there were women underneath those chadris and that some women had to wear them out in public. We never called the garments burqas."

Afghan men gaze out over the village of Istalif, some 30 kilometers northwest of Kabul.





Afghan schoolgirls return home after attending school, an act that the Taliban would ban some 30 years later. "Afghan girls, as well as boys, were educated up to the high school level, and although girls [and boys] wore uniforms, the girls were not allowed to wear a chadri (burqa) on their way to secondary school," says Peg Podlich. "Able young women attended college, as did the men."
\

Young Afghan students dance on a school playground as a teacher and a student accompany on instruments.


Men and boys washing and swimming in the Kabul River.

Afghan students learn chemistry in a mud-walled classroom.

"For the year that I was in Kabul, my family lived in a house in Shar-e Naw, up the road from the Shar-e Naw Park," says Peg Podlich. "My parents had lived in Denver, Colorado, in the 1940s. My mother would say that Kabul reminded her of Denver: about a mile in altitude, often sunny, with beautiful mountains in the distance. I thought it seemed somewhat like Arizona because of the arid landscape and lack of rain. Since I was born [in Arizona], it was very easy for me to appreciate the stark beauty of the landscape there in Afghanistan."









Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque, near the Kabul River


A boy decorates cakes, cookies, and other sweets.






"In the spring of 1968, my family took a public, long-distance Afghan bus through the Khyber Pass to visit Pakistan (Peshawar and Lahore)," Peg Podlich remembers. "The road was rather bumpy in that direction, too. As I recall it was somewhat harrowing at certain points with a steep drop off on one side and a mountain straight up on the other! I remember that before we left Kabul my father paid for a young man to go around the bus with a smoking censor to bless the bus or ward off the evil eye. I guess it worked -- we had a safe trip."

The 2.6-kilometer-long Salang Tunnel, which passes beneath the Hindu Kush mountain range, was built with the help of the Soviet Union. It opened in 1964.







Young boys walk home on the outskirts of Kabul.






A smaller Buddha statue in the Bamiyan Valley


"The Higher Teachers College was a two-year institution for training college-level teachers, located at Seh Aqrab Road and Pul-e Surkh Road, on the west side of Kabul, near Kart-e Sei," recalls Peg Podlich. In this photograph, a Mr. Bahir (left), who was William Podlich's counterpart at the college, and an Afghan teacher pose outside the school.

Young Afghans gather to share tea, sing, and play music.







A merchant fries jalebi, a sweet Afghan dessert, over an open fire.

"In the spring of 1968, my family took a public, long-distance Afghan bus through the Khyber Pass to visit Pakistan (Peshawar and Lahore)," Peg Podlich remembers. "The road was rather bumpy in that direction, too. As I recall it was somewhat harrowing at certain points with a steep drop off on one side and a mountain straight up on the other! I remember that before we left Kabul my father paid for a young man to go around the bus with a smoking censor to bless the bus or ward off the evil eye. I guess it worked -- we had a safe trip."

Two sisters pose for a photograph on a street in Kabul.


Amazyble





Sinking Island - Ghoramara - Indian Ocean

At least half of the tiny Indian island of Ghoramara has disappeared underwater in the last few decades.








In a few more decades, it may sink completely.





"This is an unrealistic-looking landscape that exists in reality," says Daesung Lee, a Paris-based photographer who visited the island a few years ago to document the remaining pockets of land. Several villages on the island are already gone.





As Lee met with the residents who haven't yet migrated to mainland India or Bangladesh, he asked them to pose on small piles of land surrounded by erosion.





"It looks like a small island that represents the whole situation of this island as a symbolic miniature," he says.









"I approached that simple fact instead of describing individual problems with images. I simply want to say that there are people losing their homeland with this series."





As the island erodes—a problem exacerbated by the fact that mangrove forests in the area have been chopped down—it's also dealing with more intense storms.





Last summer, tidal waves washed away embankments built to protect villages, houses collapsed, and a layer of slimy mud covered the island. The flooding spread disease and contaminated freshwater.









Many residents are starting to leave the island as it becomes increasingly difficult to farm or fish and make a living.





Fast Company



Abandoned Shopping Malls - United States of America



When the sprawling Randall Park Mall opened near Cleveland in 1976, it was briefly the largest in the world.







Developers touted it as a symbol of the good life in suburbia. The small town where it was located added two shopping bags to its municipal seal in homage.













































Fast Company                                            Seph Lawless