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Showing posts with label Pollution. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Pollution. Show all posts

Geothermal Heat Energy Extraction from Boreholes

Shallow geothermal energy – high efficient heating and cooling of hotel complexes and commercial buildings with borehole heat exchanger systems as seasonal storage for heat and cold




The utilization of shallow geothermal energy with borehole heat exchangers and heat pumps for heating and cooling of buildings is very popular in Europe due to low costs of operation and high operating reliability. These systems have the highest rates of growth of all energy supply systems in Europe.

In order to provide a productive and comfortable climate for a living and working environment, buildings have an anti-cyclical demand of heat and cold. During the summer, when abundant heat is available, they have to be air-conditioned, while in wintertime, when cold is at disposal, the buildings have to be heated. Especially the heat and cold supply for hotels and commercial buildings is a challenge, as their huge energy demand needs to be satisfied with a reliable and cost-effective solution. This solution are borehole heat exchangers, which use the huge energy storage potential of the underground with up to 400 m deep boreholes and turn it into an anti-cyclic heat reservoir.



Excessive space heat from air-conditioning in summer will not simply be blown into the atmosphere. The heat is transferred into the underground via the borehole heat exchangers and will increase the existing heat potential of the earth. The same system is used to extract the heat in winter from the underground and make it available for the heating of the building with a heat pump.


Compared to conventional systems, the cost of operation of ground-coupled heat pumps is very low. A minimum of 75% of the heat will be provided by the underground. Depending on the design, the cooling mode requires only electricity for a circulation pump. A borehole heat exchanger system can be operated 50% cheaper than a conventional heating and cooling system, where the heating and the air-conditioning unit work independent from each other.



With professional and optimized planning the utilization of shallow geothermal energy is the most economical system for the combination of heating and air-conditioning, especially for larger buildings. The investigation and evaluation of a shallow geothermal energy supply with regards to the requirements of the building services and the local site conditions has to be conducted by a professional consultant. The technical knowledge of an expert is needed from the first planning phase to the completion for a successful implementation of an optimized system.


By human terms, nearly inexhaustible shallow geothermal potential as a renewable energy. They can be ideally combined with other systems, like CHP, solar collectors, and photo-voltaic systems. Borehole heat exchanger systems can provide the base load day and night, as they are independent of sun or wind and they are an ideal solution for buildings with a high energy demand, like hotels and commercial buildings. South Africa is a perfect location for this technology – commercial buildings, like shopping centers and office buildings can be supplied with a perfect heating and cooling system with essential savings for operation costs. Drilling equipment is available for a reasonable price and the underground conditions are perfect in many parts of the country.

Dr. Frank Frauenstein - Email Me                        

 




Climate Change and Global Warming


3. Are sea levels rising?





Increases in sea level have tracked strongly with human activity. We started burning fossil fuel during the Industrial Revolution (1760-1850), and our use of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased every year. Sea levels, in response to steadily warming temperatures, also rose steadily.





Unfortunately, the sea level projections don't look like a straight line. It looks like an upward sloping curve. Sea levels aren't increasing at the same rate every year — thatrate is increasing.
At present, sea levels are projected to rise by as much as 3 feet by 2100.





With the planet's ice reserves falling into the oceans faster than humanity has ever seen,the excess water has to go somewhere. 1.6 million people live in the islands scattered across the Pacific (3 million, if you count Hawaii), and they are all in danger of slowly losing their homelands.


But rising sea levels won't just affect faceless people of nations you've never heard of that you don't pronounce correctly (like Kiribati).
Ever heard that saying "A rising tide lifts all boats"? Let's revise that: "A rising tide sinks all coastal communities."
Nearly 40% of Americans live in a coastal county.


Rising sea levels could make significant portions of New York City unlivable.


4. Have recent heat waves been more intense?



How Real is Climate Change and Global Warming

 

Mutation and Evolution - How We Are Changing the World Around Us






Fat polar bear swimming in Hudson Bay



Rewilded tiger fitted with a kill switch



Rhinoceros with no horns                                                                      



White House crow








Elephant that has no tusk






Largely, the changes are the result of human intervention, though, like selective breeding, or wildlife protection measures.



Renhui works with the Institute of Critical Zoologists, an organization that brings together artists and scientists to research the relationship between humans and animals.


Fast Company Design                                                Robert Zhao Renhui





How Much Saharan Dust Feeds Amazon’s Plants

What connects Earth's largest, hottest desert to its largest tropical rain forest?

The Sahara Desert is a near-uninterrupted brown band of sand and scrub across the northern third of Africa. The Amazon rain forest is a dense green mass of humid jungle that covers northeast South America. But after strong winds sweep across the Sahara, a tan cloud rises in the air, stretches between the continents, and ties together the desert and the jungle. It’s dust. And lots of it.

For the first time, a NASA satellite has quantified in three dimensions how much dust makes this trans-Atlantic journey. Scientists have not only measured the volume of dust, they have also calculated how much phosphorus – remnant in Saharan sands from part of the desert’s past as a lake bed – gets carried across the ocean from one of the planet’s most desolate places to one of its most fertile.



For the first time, a NASA satellite has quantified in three dimensions how much dust makes the trans-Atlantic journey from the Sahara Desert the Amazon rain forest. Among this dust is phosphorus, an essential nutrient that acts like a fertilizer, which the Amazon depends on in order to flourish.

Image Credit: 
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

Slideshow - Climate Change is Real - The Inconvenient Truth

In 2009, Al Gore followed up with the publication of Our Choice: A Plan to Solve the Climate Crisis, a book that "gathers in one place all of the most effective solutions that are available now and that, together, will solve this crisis". "It is now abundantly clear that we have at our fingertips all of the tools we need to solve the climate crisis. The only missing ingredient is collective will."








One thousand years of temperature history obtained from isotope analysis of ice cores.


Measured since 1958, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been increasing steadily.






One thousand years of CO2 and temperature data -- the curves have similar shape.







650,000 years of CO2 and temperature history, from Antarctic ice cores. Dips record ice ages. CO2 concentration and temperature are related. CO2 has spiked upward in recent years.







If no changes are made, CO2 concentration is predicted to climb much higher (to 600 ppm) in 45 years.







Ocean temperatures since 1940. Blue indicates normal range, green indicates range predicted by climate models due to human causes.







Ocean temperatures (see previous chart). Red line indicates actual ocean temperature history (outside and above normal range -- climate models were right).







As ocean temperatures rise, storms intensify, causing increased insurance pay-outs.







Incidents of major flooding have increased in recent decades.







37 inches (94 cm) of rain in 24 hours flooded Mumbai, India in July 2005.






Global precipitation has increased in last century by 20% but not evenly; some areas have received less. Sub-Sahara Africa is severely affected.







Arctic sea ice extent and thickness has diminished precipitously since the 1970's.







The 'Global Ocean Conveyor Belt' carries heat around the globe, in particular, to Europe. However, disruption due to ice melt has stopped heat flow to Europe in the past.











Global warming shifts the seasons, disrupting ecological relationships. The time of Black Tern bird arrival (blue) and bird hatching (yellow); hatching no longer coincides with insect peak (orange), starving chicks in the Netherlands.







Antarctic ice shelf break-up predicted by models has occurred. Larsen ice shelf (green) broke up from 1995 to 2002. Sea levels are rising. A 20 ft (6m) rise in sea level would create over 100 million refugees.







Population has exploded in the last 200 years. In 1945 there were 2.3 billion people, in 2006 there are 6.5 billion, and in 2050 there may be 9.1 billion.



Much of the population growth is occurring in developing countries.



Population growth and rising living standards drive demand for food.



... and demand for water.



Lights from fishing fleets (blue), fires (red), gas flares (yellow), and cities (white).



Relative contribution to global warming, by country. "USA is responsible for more greenhouse gas pollution than South America, Africa, the Middle East, Australia, Japan, and Asia -- all put together."



Carbon emissions per person, for selected countries.



Carbon emissions per country, for selected countries.







"We don't have to choose between a healthy economy and a healthy environment. Without a planet, we won't enjoy gold bars, and if we do the right things, we'll have both."



Comparison of vehicle fuel economy and emission standards around the world.



California proposes standards that exceed US national standards. US car manufacturers suing California, saying targets are unreachable in 10 years -- despite manufacturers in other countries already doing it now.



Companies building more efficient cars are doing well; US car manufacturers are losing market capitalization.



USA can reduce its emissions by 2050 to pre-1970 levels by a combination of approaches...



... more efficient use of electrical energy (blue), more efficient buildings (purple), improved vehicle efficiency (green), more efficient transport network (light green), increased reliance on bio and wind energy (tan), CO2 sequestering (white).



"Future generations may well have occasion to ask themselves, What were our parents thinking? Why didn't they wake up when they had the chance? We have to hear that question, from them, now."


The Inconvenient Truth - www.web.ncf.ca                                @algore