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Showing posts with label Research. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Research. Show all posts

Holistic Management - Mob Grazing - Ian Mitchell-Innes

 
Holistic Management Educator using Mob Grazing - Manipulating Soil Fertility - Livestock Nutrition and Farming
Ian Mitchell-Innes
 

 Next - Animal Mineral Supplementation



Animal Mineral Supplementation - Ranching - Farming

Energy is Money, Money is Energy, Time is Money and Water is Money’

‘The Animal Tells The Story'
Any supplementation given to Livestock, is a crutch to help you through a change, be it Environmental or Physical. It is to make sure you do not loose animal performance, while you the manager and animals, are going through a learning curve. To enable these seeds to germinate and grow, we need to change the Environment at soil surface level. There is no argument, that this can be achieved with livestock, by emulating what happened in the past, before man intervened with a rifle and barbed wire. 

Next - Ranching and Ownership Responsibilities



Ranching and Ownership Responsibilities

Taking Ownership

Many Ranchers and Farmers are now ready to make a change from the conventional, whatever that might be, for the area. The biggest problem is most are looking for a System or a Recipe. This might work in business, where most situations tend to be linear. When dealing with the Environment and Agriculture, managers are making decisions and dealing with Chaos. This chaos is complex and multidimensional and operates in ‘Wholes within Wholes, with interconnecting parts’.
The only way to deal with this Chaos, is to remain totally flex able, using ongoing monitoring. For this to be effective, the manager needs to take ownership and responsibility of his/her decisions. There is a learning to this, as knowledge needs to be obtained, to understand why you are doing something and for what reason.

The first thing to consider is animal performance, as this is the financial aspect of all livestock based operations. The Land and what grows on it, is a solar panel. Capturing the Energy from the sun, which is for free and converting it into an edible product. We use livestock to eat this product and convert it into a saleable commodity, which is meat, milk and wool etc.
‘The limiting factor to all animal performance is Energy’, be it re-conception or weight gain.
We can improve this solar panel, by sequestrating Carbon, covering the soil, improving soil life and growing plants which are more effective at capturing Energy from the Sun.
There is ‘nothing for nothing’ in this World, so it is important to fully understand what you are trying to achieve. If it is to save the World and use livestock as a tool only, to improve the soil, there could be a direct cost to you the manager, in loss of animal performance or having to buy a supplement. If you are paying Tax, this might not affect your bottom line as the Government will be paying for it, if not be very careful.
‘Energy is Money, Money is Energy, Time is Money and Water is Money’



Mob Grazing - Ranching - Animal Nutrition

Energy is Money, Money is Energy, Time is Money
Water is Money

Any supplementation given to Livestock, is a crutch to help you through a change, be it Environmental or Physical. It is to make sure you do not loose animal performance, while you the manager and animals, are going through a learning curve.
 
 

There is increasing evidence, that we humans, particularly since the advent of barbed wire, have managed in such a way that we have reduced the effectiveness of our soils. The result being the plants growing on those soils, do not capture the amount of Energy from the Sun, which used to be captured. The loss of these plants is not as dramatic as we thought it might be, as Nature knew we were going to mess up and the seeds of those good Energy capturing plants are still in and on the soil.
To enable these seeds to germinate and grow, we need to change the Environment at soil surface level. There is no argument, that this can be achieved with livestock, by emulating what happened in the past, before man intervened with a rifle and barbed wire.

Some of the things we have learnt are :-
The bigger the herd, the better the animals do and the quicker the soil is restored.
The more Carbon (plant material) is trodden onto and into the soil, the better the soil does.
We need to manage the livestock to make sure the soil is covered with growing plants or litter, to keep the soil at a more constant temperature and feed life in the soil.
We also know that selection of grazing makes animals perform (fat).
This is all achieved with Time and Timing
Before committing yourself to any change in grazing, take out a pen and calculator and work out which form of Grazing you can afford. You will be doing a “Marginal Reaction”. Which form of grazing, costs you the least, to achieve what you want (in terms of improving the soil) and getting animal performance.
Use the heading of this article, Energy, Money, Time and Water.
If you do not get animal performance you will go broke!
29 December 2015


Ian Mitchell-Innes                          
 



The Future of Earth - Global Warming




Video - The Future of Earth with Global Warming

Abbreviated version of the visualization 'Heating Up,' which depicts climate model projection of 21st century global temperatures. Credit: NASA Scientific Visualization Studio.


“Do we think about the aerosol propellant in our underarm deodorant every day?” Gavin Schmidt, climatologist and director of The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), asked me. “I don’t think we even have aerosols anymore,” I answered, wondering where he was going with this.

“That’s the point,” he continued, “and nobody cares. Nobody cares where your energy comes from; nobody cares whether your car is electric or petrol. People confuse energy supply with where the energy is supplied from.” He was trying to make the point that as long as people have the things they want, it doesn’t matter, to the vast majority of us, how we get them. This means that as long as the light switch still turns on the lights, most people would barely notice if we were to shift from burning fossil fuels to energy sources with less impact on Earth’s climate (just as people don’t notice that ozone-depleting propellants aren’t used in aerosol cans any more).

I was eager to speak with Dr. Schmidt because of his passion for communicating climate science to public audiences on top of his work as a climatologist. Schmidt is a co-founder and active blogger at Real Climate and was also awarded the inaugural Climate Communications Prize, by the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in 2011. “My goal in communicating,” he explained, “is a totally futile effort to raise the level of the conversation so that we actually discuss the things that matter.”

Since the mere mention of a computer model can cause an otherwise normal person’s face to glaze over, I thought Schmidt, a leader in climate simulations and Earth system modeling, would be the ideal candidate to explain one of the most important, yet probably one of the most misunderstood, instruments scientists have for studying Earth’s climate. See, people commonly confuse climate and weather, and this confusion is perhaps most pronounced when it comes to understanding the difference between a weather forecast and a climate simulation.
Numerical laboratory

Schmidt’s work routine is much like that of any other scientist. He spends a few months preparing experiments, then a few more months conducting the experiments, then a few more months refining and improving the experiments, then a few more months going back and looking at fine details, then a few more months … you get the idea. Climate scientists use complex computer simulations as numerical laboratories to conduct experiments because we don’t have a bunch of spare Earths just lying around. These simulations model Earth’s conditions as precisely as possible. “A single run can take three months on up on super computers,” Schmidt said. “For really long runs, it can take a year.” NASA scientists can reserve time at the NASA Supercomputer Center with High-End Computing Capability to run simulations. Like an astronomer who reserves time on a large telescope to run her experiments, Schmidt books time on these computers to run his.

Schmidt asks the computer to calculate the weather in 20-minute time steps and see how it changes. Every 20 minutes it updates its calculation over hundred-year or even thousand-year periods in the past or the future. “The models that we run process about three to four years of simulation, going through every 20 minute time step, every real day.”

A typical climate simulation code is large, as in 700,000 lines of computer code large. For comparison, the Curiosity Rover required about 500,000 lines of code to autonomously descend safely on Mars, a planet 140 million miles away with a signal time delay of about 14 minutes. The size of a typical app, such as our Earth Now mobile app, is just over 6,000 lines of code. Climate simulations require such a large quantity of code because Earth’s climate is so extraordinarily complex. And, according to Schmidt, “Complexity is quite complex.”

Like a scientist who runs an experiment in a science lab, climate modelers want code that’s consistent from one experiment to another. So they spend most of their time developing that code, looking at code, improving code and fixing bugs.

The model output is compared to data and observations from the real world to build in credibility. “We rate the predictions on whether or not they’re skillful; on whether we can demonstrate they are robust.” When models are tested against the real world, we get a measure of how skillful the model is at reproducing things that have already happened. Then we can be more confident about the accuracy in predicting what’s going to happen. Schmidt wants to find out where the models have skill and where they provide useful information. For example, they’re not very useful for tornado statistics, but they're extremely useful on global mean temperature. According to Schmidt, the credible and consistently reliable predictions include ones that involve adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. “You consistently get increases in temperature and those increases are almost always greater over land than they are in the ocean. They’re always larger in the Arctic than in the mid-latitudes and always more in the northern hemisphere than the southern, particularly Antarctica. Those are very, very robust results.”

Lately, his team has been working on improving the code for sea ice dynamics to include the effects of brine pockets (very salty fluid within the ice matrix) as well as the wind moving the ice around. For example, to understand the timeline for Arctic sea ice loss, his team has to work on the different bits of code for the wind, the temperature, the ocean and the water vapor and include the way all these pieces intersect in the real world. After you improve the code, you can see the impact of those improvements.

I asked Schmidt what people’s behavior would look like “if they understood that burning fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide, which causes global warming.” He replied, “People would start focusing on policies and processes that would reduce the amount of fossil fuels without ruining the economy or wrecking society.” Then he added, “I think, I hope! that people will get it before it’s too late.”

I hope so, too...


Gavin Schmidt

Communications Specialist                                           NASA Climate - Earth Right Now
Laura Faye Tenenbaum is a science communicator at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and teaches oceanography at Glendale Community College.           Contact Laura


A History of the Landsat Science Satellite

Landsat 1 • Landsat 2 • Landsat 3 • Landsat 4 • Landsat 5 • Landsat 6 • Landsat 7 • Landsat 8

From the Beginning

“The Landsat program was created in the United States in the heady scientific and exploratory times associated with taming the atom and going to the Moon,” explains Dr. John Barker. In fact, it was the Apollo Moon-bound missions that inspired the Landsat program. During the early test bed missions for Apollo, photographs of Earth’s land surface from space were taken for the first time.






“This photography has been documented as the stimulus for Landsat,” explains Dr. Paul Lowman, who proposed the terrain photography experiment for the last two Mercury missions, the Gemini missions, and the Apollo 7 and 9 missions.


Thor-Delta rocket prepared to launch Landsat 1, 1972.
Thor-Delta rocket prepared to launch Landsat 1, 1972.

In 1965, director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), William Pecora, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about the natural resources of our planet. Pecora stated that the program was “conceived in 1966 largely as a direct result of the demonstrated utility of the Mercury and Gemini orbital photography to Earth resource studies.”


While weather satellites had been monitoring Earth’s atmosphere since 1960 and were largely considered useful, there was no appreciation of terrain data from space until the mid-1960s.
So, when Landsat 1 was proposed, it met with intense opposition from the Bureau of Budget and those who argued high-altitude aircraft would be the fiscally responsible choice for Earth remote sensing.


Concurrently, the Department of Defense feared that a civilian program such as Landsat would compromise the secrecy of their reconnaissance missions.
Additionally, there were also geopolitical concerns about photographing foreign countries without permission.


In 1965, NASA began methodical investigations of Earth remote sensing using instruments mounted on planes. In 1966, the USGS convinced the Secretary of the Interior, Stewart L. Udall, to announce that the Department of the Interior (DOI) was going to proceed with its own Earth-observing satellite program.


This savvy political stunt coerced NASA to expedite the building of Landsat. But, budgetary constraints and sensor disagreements between application agencies (notably the Department of Agriculture and DOI) again stymied the satellite construction process.
Finally, by 1970 NASA had a green light to build a satellite. Remarkably, within only two years, Landsat 1 was launched, heralding a new age of remote sensing of land from space.


The Landsat satellite record stretches from 1972 to the present. This gallery includes all Landsat images published on the Earth Observatory, Visible Earth, and Landsat Science web sites from all seven Landsat satellites (Landsats 1-8, Landsat 6 failed to achieve orbit). All of the images are in the public domain and may be used with attribution. The correct attribution for imagery obtained from this site is:


“Landsat imagery courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and U.S. Geological Survey” or “USGS/NASA Landsat”





More History

 












Learn about the Landsat Legacy project        Landsat Science



Curiosity Mars Rover moves On - Alexander Hills

Within Rover's Reach at Mars Target Area 'Alexander Hills'





This view from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover shows a swath of bedrock called "Alexander Hills," which the rover approached for close-up inspection of selected targets.

The mosaic of six Mastcam frames covers an area about 6 feet (2 meters) across. It shows details within the workspace accessible using the rover's robotic arm from the rover's location when the view was acquired. The component exposures were taken on Nov. 23, 2014, during the 817th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. The color has been approximately white-balanced to resemble how the scene would appear under daytime lighting conditions on Earth.

Figure A is an annotated version showing the location of three targets selected for study -- "Aztec," "Agate Hill" and "Cajon" -- and a 50-centimeter (20-inch) scale bar.

The location of Alexander Hills within the "Pahrump Hills" outcrop at the base of Mount Sharp is indicated on an earlier Mastcam view at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19039. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed and built the project's Curiosity rover. Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, built and operates the rover's Mastcam.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Erosion Resistance at 'Pink Cliffs' at Base of Martian Mount Sharp
Erosion Resistance at 'Pink Cliffs' at Base of Martian Mount Sharp
Full Resolution


Ripples Beside 'Pahrump Hills' Outcrop at Base of Mount Sharp
Ripples Beside 'Pahrump Hills' Outcrop at Base of Mount Sharp
Full Resolution


Erosion Resistance at 'Pink Cliffs' at Base of Martian Mount Sharp
Erosion Resistance at 'Pink Cliffs' at Base of Martian Mount Sharp (Labeled)
Full Resolution


Fine-Grained Rock at Base of Martian Mount Sharp
Fine-Grained, Finely Layered Rock at Base of Martian Mount Sharp
Full Resolution


Fine-Grained Rock at Base of Martian Mount Sharp
Fine-Grained, Finely Layered Rock at Base of Martian Mount Sharp (Labeled)
Full Resolution

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NASA - MARS




Record Drought - Stunning Changes along the Colorado River

Lake Powell is at historic lows, offering kayakers new channels to explore but raising the alarm about water.

A boat traces the curves of Reflection Canyon, part of Glen Canyon.
A boat wends its way around the curves of Reflection Canyon, part of Lake Powell in Glen Canyon. The "bathtub rings" on the walls show past water levels.
Photograph by Michael Melford, National Geographic Creative
Jonathan Waterman
Published November 23, 2014

LAKE POWELL, Utah—In early September, at the abandoned Piute Farms marina on a remote edge of southern Utah's Navajo reservation, we watched a ten-foot (three-meter) waterfall plunging off what used to be the end of the San Juan River.


Until 1990, this point marked the smooth confluence of the river with Lake Powell, one of the largest reservoirs in the U.S. But the lake has shrunk so much due to the recent drought that this waterfall has emerged, with sandy water as thick as a milkshake.

My partner DeEdda McLean and I had come to this area west of Mexican Hat, Utah, to kayak across Lake Powell, a reservoir formed by the confluence of the San Juan and the Colorado Rivers and the holding power of Glen Canyon Dam, which lies just over the border in Arizona. Yet in place of a majestic reservoir, we saw only the thin ribbon of a reemergent river channel, which had been inundated for most of the past three decades by the lake. We called this new channel the San Powell, combining the name of the river and the lake.

Map of the Lake Mead and Lake Powell regions.
NG Staff

We had also come to see firsthand how drought is changing the landscapes of the desert Southwest. Here, judging by the lack of conservation reform, water has seemed to be largely taken for granted. But our recent float suggests that profound changes may be in store for the region. (See "The American Nile.")

Sweating in the desert heat, we loaded our 15-foot (5-meter) kayaks with two weeks' worth of food and ten gallons of water—enough to last us two days. Drinking from the silty river or fecal-contaminated areas of Lake Powell frequented by houseboats was not an option (Glen Canyon Recreation Area, which includes the reservoir, is visited by more than two million people a year). The contours of our journey—where we camped, our hiking destinations, and how far we paddled each day—would be defined by the need to find potable springs.

Like bicyclists shunning the interstate, many kayakers have avoided Lake Powell ever since the builders of Glen Canyon Dam finished flooding 186 miles (300 kilometers) of the Colorado River Valley in 1980. The reservoir was named after John Wesley Powell, the National Geographic Society co-founder who first paddled most of the Colorado River and who later, in public office, tried to limit population growth in the arid Southwest. The dams and the enormous reservoirs that were later built in the desert would have horrified him.


Motorboaters call Powell's lake the "Jewel of the Colorado" because of its unnatural emerald hue—Glen Canyon Dam now captures the silt that used to make the Colorado, after its confluence with the San Juan, the most colorful river in the West. Paddlers call it "Lake Foul" for the noise and stench of outboard engines.

Photo of Lake Powell in 2011.
In 2011, Lake Powell contained plenty of water.
Photograph by Jon Waterman

"Extreme" Drought

According to the U.S. Drought Monitor, 11 of the past 14 years have been drought years in the Southwest, with the drought ranging from "severe" to "extreme" to "exceptional," depending on the year and the area.

At "full pool," Lake Powell spans 254 square miles (660 square kilometers)—a quarter the size of Rhode Island. The lightning bolt-shaped canyon shore stretches 1,960 miles (3,150 kilometers), 667 miles (1,073 kilometers) longer than the West Coast of the continental United States.

The reservoir serves multiple purposes. It stores water from the Upper Basin states of Wyoming, Utah, New Mexico, and Colorado so that the Lower Basin states of California, Nevada, and Arizona can receive their allotted half of the Colorado River; it creates electricity through hydro-generators at Glen Canyon Dam; and it helps prevent flooding below Hoover Dam (240 miles or 390 kilometers downstream), the site of North America's largest reservoir, Lake Mead.

11 of the past 14 years have been drought years in the Southwest.

The irony, as most students of this river's history now know, is that the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation created these enormous reservoirs during the wettest period of the past millennium. According to modern tree-ring data (unavailable during the dam-building epoch), the previous millennium experienced droughts much more severe than those in the first 14 years of the 21st century. Many climate scientists think the Southwest is again due for a megadrought. The Bureau of Reclamation's analysis of over a hundred climate projections suggests the Colorado River Basin will be much drier by the end of this century than it was in the past one, with the median projection showing 45 percent less runoff into the river.

Last winter was snowy in the Rockies, and runoff was at 96 percent of the historical average. Because of the previous years of drought, however, Lake Powell had risen to only half full by fall.
But Lake Mead was in even worse shape. This year it plunged to 39 percent of capacity, a low that has not been matched since Hoover Dam began backing up the Colorado River in 1935. In August, the Bureau of Reclamation announced that Lake Powell would release an additional 10 percent of its waters, or 2.5 trillion gallons, to Lake Mead. That release will lower the water in Lake Powell by about three feet (one meter).

Photo of Lake Powell in 2014.
By 2014, Lake Powell was full of plant life and silt.
Photograph by Jon Waterman

Rise of Ancient Ruins?

Fifty miles (80 kilometers) up from the Colorado River confluence, on what is commonly known as the San Juan River Arm of Lake Powell, we kept poking our paddles-cum-measuring sticks toward the shallow river bottom, shouting: "Good-bye, reservoir! Hello, San Powell River!" In a four-mile-per-hour, opaque current, always hunting for the deepest river braids, we breezed past fields of still-viscous, former lake-bottom silt deposits. Stepping out of the boat here would have been an invitation to disappear in quicksand.

We paddled downstream, looking for the edge of the reservoir. We passed caterwauling great blue herons, a yipping coyote, and squawking conspiracies of ravens. By late afternoon, dehydrated by the desert sun, we stopped at one of the few quicksand-free tent sites above the newly emerged river: a sandy yet dry creek bed draining the sacred Navajo Mountain.

We slept in the perfume of blooming nightshades; wild burros brayed throughout the night. Here, more than a dozen miles below our put-in at a marina that once served the reservoir, the swirling "San Powell" River continued to sigh 15 feet (5 meters) below our tent.

In October 2011, when the reservoir was at 70 percent of its capacity, I had stood on a rocky shore above where our tent now stood and photographed Lake Powell's Zahn Bay here in the San Juan River Valley. It's dry now, and the lake bottom is a cracked series of chocolate-colored hummocks, surrounded by the invasive Russian thistle and tamarisk, native willows and sunflowers, and pockmarked by burro hooves.

For five days, we wouldn't see a human footprint or hear the ubiquitous whine of Lake Powell boat traffic.

Half full, the amazing vessel that is Lake Powell has lost 4.4 trillion gallons of water in the recent drought.

By day three, desperate to refill our water bottles, we found a newly created marsh where the river thinned before dropping into the deeper reservoir. Unlike anything I'd experienced elsewhere on the sterile Lake Powell, abundant small fish and aquatic life supported American pelicans, mallards, coots, mergansers, green herons, hawks, and kingfishers. The silty river is also sheltering endangered razorback suckers and pikeminnows that are preyed upon by non-native fish in the clearer waters of the lake.

Within a decade or two at the most, if the drought persists, we can expect to see hundreds of inundated ancient Anasazi ruins rising above the drying reservoir. Archaeologists will be delighted, just as kayakers like us delight at the reemergence of a river. But more than 36 million people in and around the Colorado River Basin depend on this vanishing water.

As we finally reached a body of water wide enough to be properly called the reservoir, many miles below where we had expected to find it, we continued paddling in a chocolate pudding of ground-up river debris. Some 94 feet (29 meters) above our craned heads, on the red sandstone walls of the reservoir, we saw the "bathtub rings"—the stains left by river minerals in wetter times.

That night we did a quick calculation: Half full, the amazing vessel that is Lake Powell has lost 4.4 trillion gallons of water in the recent drought; the deeper vessel of Lake Mead at 39 percent capacity has lost 5.6 trillion gallons of water.

Aerial view looking down on Lake Powell and the Glen Canyon dam.
This aerial view of Lake Powell and Glen Canyon Dam was taken in 2009.
Photograph by Peter McBride, National Geographic Creative

Big Impact

As central California (beyond the reach of Colorado River water) has already been hamstrung by an even more exceptional drought, many farms and dairy operations have shut down, rationing has begun, homeowners are being fined for watering their lawns, and the state has begun relying on finite groundwater supplies. And as extensive farm networks are served by the Colorado River, it is likely that nationwide produce prices will soon begin to rise.

What's next? As Lakes Powell and Mead continue to plummet, officials are now predicting rationing by 2017 for the junior Colorado River water-rights holders of Nevada and Arizona.

In the decades that follow, invasive flora and fauna will colonize dried-out reservoir bottoms. River running and reservoir boating may end. Those will seem like minor issues compared with the survival of cities like Los Angeles, Denver, Phoenix, and Las Vegas, all of which depend on the Colorado River. There is talk of diverting more water to the Colorado Basin users from places such as the Missouri River. A massive desalination plant is being built on the California coast. But such solutions won't come cheap.

Officials are now predicting rationing by 2017 for the junior Colorado River water-rights holders of Nevada and Arizona.

We can hope for agricultural reform, such as irrigation changes, more aggressive crop rotation and fallowing, reverting to less water-intensive produce, or dismantling of the water-intensive southwestern dairy industry. And the exponential population growth of the region—as Powell warned at the end of the 19th century—will have to be addressed. (See "Arizona Irrigators Share Water With Desert River.")

By mid-September, we reached the speedboat-accessible region of Lake Powell. Motorboaters often stopped to ask if we needed help. Many of these boaters offered us iced beer or bottled water imported from distant regions of the country.

Each day, for 14 days, except during two violent but brief rainstorms, the temperature climbed into the 90s. Often dizzy, and even exhausted from the heat, we parceled out our water, cup by cup, consuming over four gallons daily. And every other day, we walked or paddled miles out of our way so that we could enact a time-honored practice of desert cultures like the Anasazi's, which vanished in the 13th-century megadrought.

Every other day, we uncapped our empty bottles while honoring this ritual of aridity: Bowing under shaded cliffs at moss-covered seeps, we pressed our lips onto cold sandstone walls and drank those precious drops until our bellies were full.

This short film by Pete McBride explores the history and meaning of the Colorado River.
Jonathan Waterman is a writer and photographer based in Colorado. In 2010 National Geographic published his book Running Dry: A Journey From Source to Sea Down the Colorado River. He is also the co-author, with Pete McBride, of The Colorado River: Flowing Through Conflict. See his previous work "The American Nile."

Get involved with the effort to restore the Colorado River through Change the Course, a partnership of National Geographic and other organizations.

National Geographic                                 Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance

Slideshow - Climate Change is Real - The Inconvenient Truth

In 2009, Al Gore followed up with the publication of Our Choice: A Plan to Solve the Climate Crisis, a book that "gathers in one place all of the most effective solutions that are available now and that, together, will solve this crisis". "It is now abundantly clear that we have at our fingertips all of the tools we need to solve the climate crisis. The only missing ingredient is collective will."








One thousand years of temperature history obtained from isotope analysis of ice cores.


Measured since 1958, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been increasing steadily.






One thousand years of CO2 and temperature data -- the curves have similar shape.







650,000 years of CO2 and temperature history, from Antarctic ice cores. Dips record ice ages. CO2 concentration and temperature are related. CO2 has spiked upward in recent years.







If no changes are made, CO2 concentration is predicted to climb much higher (to 600 ppm) in 45 years.







Ocean temperatures since 1940. Blue indicates normal range, green indicates range predicted by climate models due to human causes.







Ocean temperatures (see previous chart). Red line indicates actual ocean temperature history (outside and above normal range -- climate models were right).







As ocean temperatures rise, storms intensify, causing increased insurance pay-outs.







Incidents of major flooding have increased in recent decades.







37 inches (94 cm) of rain in 24 hours flooded Mumbai, India in July 2005.






Global precipitation has increased in last century by 20% but not evenly; some areas have received less. Sub-Sahara Africa is severely affected.







Arctic sea ice extent and thickness has diminished precipitously since the 1970's.







The 'Global Ocean Conveyor Belt' carries heat around the globe, in particular, to Europe. However, disruption due to ice melt has stopped heat flow to Europe in the past.











Global warming shifts the seasons, disrupting ecological relationships. The time of Black Tern bird arrival (blue) and bird hatching (yellow); hatching no longer coincides with insect peak (orange), starving chicks in the Netherlands.







Antarctic ice shelf break-up predicted by models has occurred. Larsen ice shelf (green) broke up from 1995 to 2002. Sea levels are rising. A 20 ft (6m) rise in sea level would create over 100 million refugees.







Population has exploded in the last 200 years. In 1945 there were 2.3 billion people, in 2006 there are 6.5 billion, and in 2050 there may be 9.1 billion.



Much of the population growth is occurring in developing countries.



Population growth and rising living standards drive demand for food.



... and demand for water.



Lights from fishing fleets (blue), fires (red), gas flares (yellow), and cities (white).



Relative contribution to global warming, by country. "USA is responsible for more greenhouse gas pollution than South America, Africa, the Middle East, Australia, Japan, and Asia -- all put together."



Carbon emissions per person, for selected countries.



Carbon emissions per country, for selected countries.







"We don't have to choose between a healthy economy and a healthy environment. Without a planet, we won't enjoy gold bars, and if we do the right things, we'll have both."



Comparison of vehicle fuel economy and emission standards around the world.



California proposes standards that exceed US national standards. US car manufacturers suing California, saying targets are unreachable in 10 years -- despite manufacturers in other countries already doing it now.



Companies building more efficient cars are doing well; US car manufacturers are losing market capitalization.



USA can reduce its emissions by 2050 to pre-1970 levels by a combination of approaches...



... more efficient use of electrical energy (blue), more efficient buildings (purple), improved vehicle efficiency (green), more efficient transport network (light green), increased reliance on bio and wind energy (tan), CO2 sequestering (white).



"Future generations may well have occasion to ask themselves, What were our parents thinking? Why didn't they wake up when they had the chance? We have to hear that question, from them, now."


The Inconvenient Truth - www.web.ncf.ca                                @algore